Marine biology is the study of animal and plant life within waterbound ecosystems. It deals with species whose life is spent mainly in the sea. Given that in biology many phyla, families and genera have some species that live in the sea and others that live on land, marine biology classifies species based on the environment rather than on taxonomy.
Marine biology covers a great deal, from the microscopic including plankton, as small as 0.02 micrometers, and phytoplankton, both hugely important as the primary producers of the sea, to the huge cetaceans (or whales) which reach up to a reported 33 meters (109 feet) in length.
The habitats studied by marine biology include everything from the tiny layers of surface water in which organisms and abiotic items may be trapped in surface tension between the ocean and atmosphere, to the depths of the abyssal trenches, sometimes 10,000 meters or more beneath the surface of the ocean. It studies habitats such as coral reefs, kelp forests, tidepools, muddy, sandy, and rocky bottoms, and the open ocean (pelagic) zone, where solid objects are rare and the surface of the water is the only visible boundary.
A large proportion of all life on Earth exists in the oceans. Exactly how large is the proportion is still unknown. While the oceans comprise about 71% of the Earth's surface, due to their depth they encompass about 300 times the habitable volume of the terrestrial habitats on Earth.
Many species are economically important to humans, including the food fishes. It is also becoming understood that the well-being of marine organisms and other organisms are linked in very fundamental ways. Human understanding is growing of the relationship between life in the sea and important cycles such as that of matter (such as the carbon cycle), of air (such as Earth's respiration, and movement of energy through ecosystems. Large areas beneath the ocean surface still remain effectively unexplored.
The marine ecosystem is large, and thus there are many subfields of marine biology. Most involve studying specializations of particular species.
Other subfields study the physical effects of continual immersion in sea water and the ocean in general, adaptation to a salty environment, and the affects of changing various oceanic properties on marine life. A subfield of marine biology studies the relationships between oceans and ocean life, and global weather and environmental issues (such as carbon dioxide displacement).
Recent marine biotechnology has focused largely on marine biomolecules, especially proteins, that may have uses in medicine or engineering. An interesting branch of marine biology is aquaculture. Marine environments are the home to many exotic biological materials that may inspire biomimetic materials.
Marine biology is closely linked to both oceanography and biology. It also encompasses ideas from ecology. Fisheries science and marine conservation can be considered partial offshoots of marine biology.
Microscopic life undersea is incredibly varied and still poorly understood. For example, at one end of the scale, the role of viruses in marine ecosystems is barely being explored even in the beginning of the 21st century.
The role of phytoplankton is better understood due to their critical position as the most numerous primary producers on Earth. Phytoplankton are categorised into cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae/bacteria), various types of algae: red, green, brown, and yellow-green, diatoms, dinoflagellates, euglenoids, coccolithophorids, cryptomonads, crysomonads, chloromonads, prasinomonads, and silicoflagellates.
Zooplankton tend to be somewhat larger, and not all are microscopic. Many Protozoa are zooplankton, including dinoflagellates, zooflagellates, foraminiferans, and radiolarians. Some of these (such as dinoflaggelates) are also phytoplankton; the plant/animal distinction often breaks down in very small organisms. Other zooplankton include cnidarians, ctenophores, chaetognaths, annelids such as polychaetes, molluscs, arthropods, and urochordates. Many larger animals begin their life as zooplankton before they become large enough to take their familiar forms. Two examples are fish larvae and sea stars (also called starfish).
Plant life is relatively rare undersea, most of the niche occupied by plants on land is actually occupied by macroscopic algae in the ocean, such as Sargassum and kelp. The plants that do survive in the sea are often found in shallow waters, such as the seagrasses (examples of which are eelgrass, Zostera, and turtlegrass, Thalassia). The intertidal zone is also a good place to find plant life in the sea, where mangroves or cordgrass might grow.
Other sea lifeEdit
Other sea life includes Cnidaria such as Jellyfish and sea anemone; Ctenophora; sea worms including phyla: Plathyhelminthes, Nemertea, Annelida, Sipuncula, Echiura, and the Phoronida; Porifera including sponges, Bryozoa, Echinodermata including starfish; and Urochordata - sea squirts or tunicates.
[Molluscs and crustaceans]
- Molluscs comprise many important commercial species such as the various shellfish (clams, cockles, abalones, oysters, etc.), squids, and octopus;
- Crustaceans, comprising lobsters, shrimp, prawns, crayfish]], crabs, etc., most of them highly priced commercial species.
Main article: FISHES (Fin fish)
Fishes inhabit the largest, (by volume) biome on Earth. They have evolved very different biological functions from other large organisms. Fish anatomy includes a two chamber heart, operculum, secretory cells that produce mucous, swim bladder, scales, fins, lips and eyes. Fish breathe by extracting oxygen from water through their gills. Fins propel and stabilize the fish in the water.
Main article: Marine mammal
There are five main types of marine mammals.
- Cetaceans include toothed whales (Suborder Odontoceti), such as the Sperm Whale, dolphins, and porpoises. Cetaceans also include baleen whales (Suborder Mysticeti), such as Gray Whales, Humpback Whales, and Blue Whales.
- Sirenians include manatees, the Dugong, and the extinct Steller's Sea Cow.
- Seals (Family Phocidae), sea lions (Family Otariidae - which also include the fur seals), and the Walrus (Family Odobenidae) are all considered pinnipeds.
- Sea Otters are members of the Family Mustelidae, which includes weasels and badgers.
- Finally, Polar Bears (Family Ursidae) are sometimes considered marine mammals because of their dependence on the sea.
Reefs comprise some of the densest bio habitats in the world by number of species per area. They can be incredibly diverse, even cold water reefs. The best-known are tropical reefs which exist in most tropical waters. Reefs are built up by coral and other calcined deposits, usually on top of a rocky outcrop on the ocean floor. Reefs can also grow on other surfaces, which has made it possible to create artificial reefs.
Much attention in marine biology is focused on coral reefs and the El Niño weather phenomenon. In 1998, coral reefs experienced a "once in a thousand years" bleaching event, in which vast expanses of reefs across the Earth died because sea surface temperatures rose well above normal. Some reefs are recovering, but scientists say that 58% of the world's coral reefs are now endangered and predict that global warming could exacerbate this trend.
Deep sea and trenchesEdit
The ocean is deep, very deep in some places. The deepest recorded measure to date is the Mariana Trench, near the Philippines, in the Pacific Ocean at 10924 m (35838 ft). At such depths, water pressure is extreme and there is no sunlight, but some life still exists. Small flounder (family Soleidae) fish and shrimp were seen by the American crew of the bathyscaphe Trieste when it dove to the bottom in 1960.
Other notable deeps include Monterey Canyon, in the eastern Pacific, the Tonga Trench in the southwest at 9750 m (32000 ft), the Philippine trench, the Puerto Rico Trench at 8605 m (28232 ft), the Romanche Trench at 7760 m (24450 ft), Fram Basin in the Arctic Ocean at 4665 m (15305 ft), the Java Trench at 7450 m (24442 ft), and the South Sandwich Trench at 7235 m (23737 ft).
In general, the deep sea is considered to start at the photic zone, the point where sunlight loses its power of transference through the water. Many life forms that live at these depths have the ability to create their own light. Much life centers around seamounts that rise from the deeps, where fish and other sea life congregate to spawn and feed. Hydrothermal vents in the ocean floor act as oases, as do their opposites, cold seeps. These places support unique biomes and many new microbes have been discovered at there.
Marine biologists are trying to amass a more complete mapping of underwater species with the help of modern techniques. The deepest oceanic depressions are supposed to contain unknown species, possibly also of great potential interest for the theories on evolution.
How oceanic factors affect distribution of various organismsEdit
An active research topic in marine biology is to discover and map the life cycles of various species and where they spend their time. Marine biologists study how the ocean currents, tides and many other oceanic factors affect ocean lifeforms, including their growth, distribution and well-being. This has only recently become technically feasible with advances in GPS and newer underwater visual devices.
Most ocean life breeds in specific places, nest or not in others, spend their time as juveniles in still others, and in maturity in yet others. Scientists know little about where many species spent different parts of their life cycles. For example, it is still largely unknown where sea turtles travel. Tracking devices do not work for some life forms, and the ocean is not friendly to technology. But these factors are being overcome in many instances.
Famous marine biologists Edit
- Jakob Johan Adolf Appellöf (1857-1921), Swedish marine zoologist.
- Joseph Ayers, marine neurophysiologist and biomimetic researcher.
- Samuel Stillman Berry (1887-1984), U.S. marine zoologist.
- Carl Chun (1852-1914), German marine biologist
- Eugene (Gene) Clark (....) ->, U.S. marine biologist; specialized in sharks research.
- Jacques-Yves Cousteau (1910-1997), French marine biologist and explorer.
- Anton Dohrn (1840-1909), German marine biologist.
- Sylvia Earle (born 1935), American oceanographer.
- Bruno Hofer (1861-1916), German fisheries scientist.
- Hirohito, Japanese emperor.
- William Elford Leach (1790-1836), English zoologist and marine biologist.
- Nicholai Miklukho-Maklai (1846-1888), Russian marine biologist and anthropologist.
- John Murray (1841-1914), Scots-Canadian marine biologist.
- Harald Rosenthal (born 1937), German hydrobiologist known for his work in fish farming and ecology.
- Georg Sars (1837-[[1927[[), Norwegian marine biologist.
- Ruth Turner (1915-2000), marine biologist.
- Charles Wyville Thompson (1832-1882), Scottish marine biologist
Source: List of biologists.
See also Edit
- MarineBio: an evolving online tribute to Marine Biology and all Ocean life.
- SeaTurtle.org: Tracking a sea turtle.
- Marinebiology.co.uk a marine biology resource.
- Marine Ecology Progress Series (MEPS).
- Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.
- Marine Life Information Network for Britain and Ireland - MarLIN.
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